1. Samuel T. Turvey and Jennifer J. Crees, “Extinction in the Anthropocene,” Current Biology, vol. 29, no. 19 (October 7, 2019): R982 ;R985.


2. Pedro Cardosa, et. al., “Scientists warning to humanity on insect extinctions,” Biological Conservation, no. 242 (February 2020): 2.

3. Damian Carrington, “Plummeting insect numbers ‘threaten collapse of nature,’” The Guardian, February 10, 2019, (accessed May 11, 2021).

4. Kendra Pierre-Louis and Nadja Popovich, “Climate Change: It’s a Buzzkill for Bumblebees,” New York Times, February 6, 2020, (accessed May 11, 2021).

5. Penguin Companion to Classical Music, s.v. "Interlude." 

6. See esp. Don L.F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen, Language Play: An Introduction to Linguistics (Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1978).

7. Stephen Walsh, Musorgsky and His Circle: A Russian Musical Adventure (New York: Knopf, 2013), 175.

8. Leonard B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 5.

9. See Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, 3 vols., trans. Steve G. Lofts (New York: Routledge, 2021); Claude Lévi-Strauss, Myth and Meaning, (New York: Routledge, 2001); Roland Barthes, S/Z, trans. Richard Miller (New York: Hill and Wang, 1974).

10. Jean-Jacques Nattiez, Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music, trans. Carolyn Abbate (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 72-3; 12.

11. Wendy Wheeler, The Whole Creature: Complexity, Biosemiotics and the Evolution of Culture (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 2006), 110.

12. Peter Harries-Jones, “Honeybees, Communicative Order, and the Collapse of Ecosystems,” Biosemiotics 2 (May 2009): 200-1.

13. I derive this idea of the surface encounter and nonhuman phenomenology on the basis of Rimsky-Korsakov's arrangement of sound from Ron Broglio, Surface Encounters: Thinking with Animals and Art, Posthumanities 17, series ed. Cary Wolfe (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011).

14. All references to Keats's poem will appear as parenthetical citations in the text, and are to "Ode to a Nightingale" in John Keats: Complete Poems, ed. Jack Stillinger (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), 279-281.

15. See ≪ λήθη ≫, or "Lethe" in the Greek in Hom. Il. 2.33,,0012,001:2:33&lang=original (accessed June 6, 2021). 

16. Helen Vendler, The Odes of John Keats (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), 86.

17. Julie Camarda, "Keats's Chameleon Poetics, Or, the Natural History of 'Ode to a Nightingale,'"Keats-Shelley Journal, vol. 68 (2019): 57.

18. Jakob von Uexküll, A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans with a Theory of Meaning, trans. Joseph D. O'Neil, Posthumanities 12, series ed. Cary Wolfe (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010); Broglio, Surface Encounters, xxii; xxiii.

19. Sonia I. Ketchian, "In the Forest with Anna Akhmatova and John Keats,"Keats-Shelley Journal, vol. 48 (1999): 138.

20. Zinaida Vengerova, Джон Китс и его поэзия (Moscow: LitRes, 1889, republished in 2017), retrieved from I'm grateful to Tamar Kharatishvili for translational assistance in regard to this text.